- K. R. G. Wheeler, A natural history of nettles Trafford Publishing 2004
- M. Griffiths, Nettle down: A brief look at sexual urtication, Mar 2013, online resource
- Bergfjord, C., Mannering, U., Frei, K. et al. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant. Sci Rep 2, 664 (2012)
- G. Edom, Extraction and Evaluation of Nettle (Urtica dioica) fibre for textile end uses, MPhil dissertation, De Montfort University Jan 2006
See full list of Individual Species References.